Carbon 14 dating information
Carbon 14 dating information - speeddatingonline ru
Using the equations for TCR and ECS, the total forcing change during the interval was 2.21 W/m.
Aerosol forcing depends strongly on very uncertain estimates of the level of preindustrial aerosols.
The analysis gives the TCR best estimate at 1.21 °C with a likely range [17 – 83%] of 1.05 to 1.45 °C.
Energy balance estimates of ECS and TCR use these equations: , where F.
The results indicate that governments should subside fossil fuels by about 18 US$/tonne of CO, rather than impose carbon taxes.
Energy Balance Climate Sensitivity The most important parameter in determining the economic impact of climate change is the sensitivity of the climate to greenhouse gas emissions.
Aerosols have a direct effect and an indirect effect from aerosol-cloud interactions, both of which are estimated to cause cooling.
Aerosols are the dominant contribution to uncertainty in climate sensitivity estimates.
Nicholas Lewis writes, “In this context, what is IMO a compelling new paper by Bjorn Stevens estimating aerosol forcing using multiple physically-based, observationally-constrained approaches is a game changer.” Stevens is an expert on cloud-aerosol processes.
He derived a new lower estimate of aerosol forcing of -1.0 W/m.
is the change in global average temperature between two periods, is the change in forcing between the two periods, and is the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance, which is the rate of heat uptake of the climate system.
The oceans account for over 90% of the climate system heat uptake.
Summary High estimates of climate sensitivity to greenhouse gases assume aerosols caused a large cooling effect, which canceled some of the previous warming effect, and little or no natural climate change.