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Corbel arches were found in other parts of ancient Asia, Africa, Europe and the Americas.In 2010, a robot discovered a long arch-roofed passageway underneath the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl, which stands in the ancient city of Teotihuacan north of Mexico City, dated to around 200 AD.
The first known built horseshoe arches are from the Kingdom of Aksum in modern-day Ethiopia and Eritrea, dating from ca. This is around the same time as the earliest contemporary examples in Roman Syria, suggesting either an Aksumite or Syrian origin for the type.
The three-hinged arch is not only hinged at its base, like the two-hinged arch, but at the mid-span as well.
The additional connection at the mid-span allows the three-hinged arch to move in two opposite directions and compensate for any expansion and contraction.
allowing the structure to move freely and compensate for the thermal expansion and contraction caused by changes in outdoor temperature.
However, this can result in additional stresses, so the two-hinged arch is also statically indeterminate, although not to the degree of the fixed arch.
One answer is to build a frame (historically, of wood) which exactly follows the form of the underside of the arch. Voussoirs are laid on it until the arch is complete and self-supporting.
For an arch higher than head height, scaffolding would be required, so it could be combined with the arch support.
In ancient China, most architecture was wooden, including the few known arch bridges from literature and one artistic depiction in stone-carved relief.
The first example of an early Gothic arch in Europe is in Sicily in the Greek fortifications of Gela.
It is commonly used in bridge design, where long spans are needed.
The catenary arch has a shape different from the parabolic curve.
The semicircular arch was followed in Europe by the pointed Gothic arch or ogive, whose centreline more closely follows the forces of compression and which is therefore stronger.