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Singapore is a unitary multiparty parliamentary republic, with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government.The People's Action Party has won every election since self-government in 1959.
When completed in 1939, at the very large cost of 0 million, it boasted what was then the largest dry dock in the world, the third-largest floating dock, and having enough fuel tanks to support the entire British navy for six months.
He offered to recognize Tengku Long as the rightful Sultan of Johor, given the title of Sultan Hussein and provide him with a yearly payment of 00 and 00 to the Temenggong; in return, Sultan Hussein would grant the British the right to establish a trading post on Singapore.
Singapore was not much affected by First World War (1914–18), as the conflict did not spread to Southeast Asia.
It gained independence from the UK in 1963 by federating with other former British territories to form Malaysia, but separated two years later over ideological differences, becoming a sovereign nation in 1965.
After early years of turbulence and despite lacking natural resources and a hinterland, the nation developed rapidly as an Asian Tiger economy, based on external trade and its workforce.
38% of Singapore's 5.6 million residents are permanent residents and other foreign nationals.
There are four official languages: English (common and first language), Malay, Mandarin and Tamil; almost all Singaporeans are bilingual.The dominance of the PAP, coupled with a low level of press freedom and restrictions on civil liberties and political rights, has led to Singapore being classified by some as a flawed democracy.One of the five founding members of ASEAN, Singapore is also the host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) Secretariat and a member of the East Asia Summit, Non-Aligned Movement and the Commonwealth of Nations.It was defended by heavy 15-inch naval guns stationed at Fort Siloso, Fort Canning and Labrador, as well as a Royal Air Force airfield at Tengah Air Base.Winston Churchill touted it as the "Gibraltar of the East" and military discussions often referred to the base as simply "East of Suez". The British Home Fleet was stationed in Europe, and the British could not afford to build a second fleet to protect its interests in Asia.The only significant event during the war was a mutiny by the Muslim sepoys from British India who were garrisoned in Singapore, which occurred in 1915.