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It has been the matter of debate among the scholars that whether the constitution of India is completely federal or unitary in nature.
This question cannot be answered without going into the meaning of federalism and the essential features that are evident in federal state.After this procedure the amendment is signed by the head of the state i.e; the President.Since in India important amendments can be amended through this procedure Hence, Indian Constitution has been rightly called a rigid constitution. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national importance such as Defence, Railways, Post and Telegraph, etc.This enables the Union government to exercise control over the State administration.The equality of units in a federation is best guaranteed by their equal representation in the Uppers House of the federal legislature (Parliament).In a federal set up there is a two tier of Government with well assigned powers and functions.
In this system the central government and the governments of the units act within a well defined sphere, co-ordinate and at the same time act independently. Wheare defines federal government as an association of states, which has been formed for certain common purposes, but in which the member states retain a large measure of their original independence.The procedure of amending the Constitution in a federal system is normally rigid.Indian Constitution provides that some amendments require a special majority.However, this is not applicable in case of Indian States.They have unequal representation in the Rajya Sabha.In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.